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All the components that constitute the cultural project of modernity are also part of the ideals put forth by the various factions of the modernist movement in Brazil. Many manifestos of the early years of the modernist movement in Brazil favored all of these notions. The new artistic expression always works toward the end-goal of reconnecting art with other aspects of life, which represents a gen- eral and abstract objective. In most of these manifestos there is also the specific goal of national emancipation.
This is not a claim to emancipate Brazilian society as a whole, but to find an authentic form of artistic expression that could capture this national spirit. It would be impossible to cite the moments when such objectives are explicitly mentioned in each of these manifestos. There was also at least the desire to democratize access to culture, which was expressed—in aesthetic terms—through the incorporation of the vernacular language along with the avoid- ance and condemnation of some old-fashioned and verbose rhetoric of past literary traditions. These ideas are fundamental to the aesthetic and ideological components of the modernist cultural projects.
This process fosters the independence of the arts from religious tutelage, and it is accompanied by increasing rationalization and individualism. As the economic market expands, profits in- crease, and this creates incentives for scientific discoveries, as well as for industrial and technological development. As part of this renovating aspect of modernity, the author also mentions the need for constant refor- mulation of signs of distinction in order to resist the effects of mass consumption. In order to avoid submission to economic, political, and technological developments, emancipating cultural projects must create spaces that foster inno- vation, spaces that allow the symbolic production to flourish inde- pendently These authors studied the secularization of the artistic fields in Germany Habermas and France Bourdieu.
To Weber, secularization is constitutive of modern culture. This process promotes the formation of autonomous social spheres that no longer depend on consecration by religion or by metaphysics. These spheres are science, morality, and art. Each of these spheres gradually becomes institutionalized. These institutionalized spheres generate specialists who become authorities in their area.
This process of rationalization promotes further separation between these spheres. Habermas not only studied the process of secularization; the au- thor is a firm believer in the emancipating potential of modernity in the realm of culture. In The Philosophical Discourse of Modernity , translated into English in , Habermas disagrees with the critique of modernity or the critique of enlightened reason in the writings of Heidegger, Bataille, Derrida, Foucault, Adorno, and Horkheimer.
This theory can be seen, for instance, in the essays compiled in the volume The Field of Cultural Production. His theory conceives of these fields as interdependent, but each autonomous field is guided by its own laws. In his view, there are alterna- tives to this problem and the project of modernity should not be abandoned. The Habermasian critique of the postmodern and post-struc- turalist attack on the enlightenment project of modernity has re- ceived its fair share of criticism as well. Even those who, like Habermas, defend the project of modernity recognize that the utopian discourse of modernity generated its own aporias.
This book critiques certain representations or appropriations of Modernism and of certain modernist texts. I will not venture in the realm of philosophical discourse on modernity. I have no inten- tion of defending the emancipatory potential of the modernist cul- tural projects, but I am against the idea of discarding any aspect of a cultural legacy of any era.
If the modernist cultural projects have failed at their highest, utopian level, it is also undeniable that they have triumphed at many other levels. One cannot talk about socialization or collectivization of artistic and intellectual culture, because in Brazil their manifestations at the erudite level are so restricted quantitatively, that they do not go beyond the small minority that can enjoy it.
It is obvious, as Candido points out, that the modernist utopia did not materialize, since Brazil still faces some of the same social, cultural, and economic issues addressed by the modernists. Howev- er, many aspects of the modernist legacy are still present in the cul- ture. Modernism has influenced many other cultural projects in Brazil throughout the twentieth century; therefore, it is still possible to say that the project of modernity is unfinished in the sense that it could still inspire future cultural and social transformations.
The discourse of criticism and historiography that proclaims the tri- umph of Modernism was born at a time when faith in modernity and the redemptive potential of Modernism was still unshaken. Most of the historiography I am analyzing in the first part of this study appeared in the s and 50s. These texts were mostly in- formed by formalistic approaches to literature, and they were na- tionalistic discourses.
The origins of this discourse precede the cri- tiques of modernity put forth by postmodern and post-structuralist scholarship, and in many ways it managed to survive the disillusion- ment and distrust inherent in that critique. The conventional dis- course on Modernism the standard definition of the phenomenon relies heavily on the notion of emancipation, not of Brazilian society as a whole but of the literary and artistic spheres.
In some cases, in the most en- thusiastic versions of this narrative, such emancipation is seen as an accomplished process and Modernism defined as a complete revo- lution. The notion of rupture becomes a ritual that is reinstat- ed in this discourse every time it attempts to define any aspect of the modernist legacy. If modernity is itself a tradition, as Paz argues in relation to the artis- tic and literary expression of modern times 17 , I would say that the conventional discourse on Modernism in Brazil also establishes a tradition of its own.
This tradition is based on the affir- mation and reiteration of the argument of rupture, which is always constitutive of the path to the emancipation of the national artistic and intellectual expression. I will ana- lyze their rhetoric in chapters one and two. In the s in Brazil, modernity had barely started to affect cultural practices when the modernist movement erupted and demanded aesthetic renovation. This project is carried out through practices of cultural politics that had many premodern features, such as private patronage of the arts In the s the modernist literature circulated in an enclosed intellectual circle.
However, in this phase of the modernizing project, the state assumes the role of cultural promoter through programs and funding. Therefore, both forms of support for the cultural project of modernity are marked by cultur- al politics private and state patronage. Many of them were writers and self-taught literary critics who not only defined their own work but also the work of other writers. My study does not question the legitimacy of this discourse or the legitimacy of Modernism. I argue that the predominant discourse on Modernism, the standard definition, the categories, the temporal demarcations, and some of the most relevant arguments that make up the institu- tionalized totalizing narrative of Modernism were first put forth by modernist intellectuals.
Modernists produce a meta-discourse that defines their own work and places them in a position of authority to arbitrate the terms of their canonization. Subsequent efforts to historicize Modernism incorporate many of the arguments and structures proposed by modernist intellectuals in their role as critics and historians.
With regard to the importance of individual authors and the relevance of specific works, such consensus is never reached. This general agreement is also relative in this discourse, as it can vary in tone and diverge with regard to specific topics. But the notion of rupture and emancipation tends to be implicitly or explic- itly reproduced. These historians pro- duce a discourse that standardizes the narrative on Modernism. In the second part of this study I provide readings of early mod- ernist texts that are intended as counter-narratives. My readings do not form a totalizing account of Modernism, but they attempt to cause a disturbance in the chain of signification that structures the conventions prescribed by the predominant discourse on Mod- ernism.
I explore some of the aspects that have been elided in the institutionalized discourse. I deliberately single out moments in which the modernist critique of modernity contradicts itself, some- times reverting back to nostalgia. In the most radical of these rup- tures the aggressiveness of some propositions works against emanci- pating and democratizing ideals. In general lines, the two major issues analyzed in each part of this study are: first, the self-legitimiz- ing aspect of the discourse on Modernism; and second, the conflic- tive relationship with modernity in the work of three modernist in- tellectuals.
In what follows I will describe each chapter. In chapter one I argue that the standard definition of Mod- ernism in Brazil relies on the notion of the modernist rupture, which represents a definitive step toward the emancipation of na- tional intelligentsia. Numerous versions of this argument compose the institutionalized view of Modernism in Brazil. It is an appropri- ation of the modernist self-defining argument, which is reiterated and ritualized in the discourse of criticism and historiography.
I analyze some of the implications of the presence of modernist intellectuals in the state cultural and educational ap- paratuses throughout the s and 40s. As modernist intellectuals assumed posts in the state bureaucracy, they gradually became in- volved with state agencies of cultural promotion, and some as- sumed significant posts in the educational system.
The canonization of Modernism occurs in this context of state-led cultural policies. I demonstrate that in the early s the first attempts to provide a broad historical framework for the study of Modernism were done by modernist intellectuals or by those who had been connected to the modernist movement since the early years.
These were some of the earliest efforts to define, organize, catalog, classify and divulge the literature of Modernism in the educational system. However, it is from these first efforts to canonize, his- toricize, and structure knowledge on Modernism that the subse- quent historiography is built. In chapter two I analyze the bulk of literary historiography pro- duced in the s.
I examine issues related to canon formation, primarily in the area of literary historiography that was established in Brazil during the s. I argue that literary historiography at that moment worked as one of the main apparatuses of the legit- imization of Modernism in Brazil. This marks the moment in which the institutionalized definition of Modernism assumed a more de- finitive form and entered the educational system. The specific issues I address are the theoretical and methodological approaches that 12 The process of institutionalization of Modernism has been studied extensive- ly.
The first section of the chapter defines the academic and social functions of literary historiography.watch
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The second section contains an inventory of the publications of the s with brief analyses of their formats and contents as well as biographical information about the authors of these publications. The third section analyzes the discourse and the ideology of literary historiography with re- gard to the modernist movement. I analyze two of the major arguments presented in some of the recent criticism that tries to break away from formalism.
There is a tendency to ascribe an oppositional meaning to forms and tech- niques, which, in their turn, are also associated with a radical cri- tique of traditions and progressive politics. These are usually argu- ments coming from leftist critics who rescue the work of authors such as Oswald de Andrade. Discursive strategies such as parody and irony as well as techniques such as collage and ellipsis assume a fixed semantic function usually related to a critique of history and traditions. I refute the argument that these forms and techniques could have any intrinsic oppositional mechanism or could be inter- preted as univocally representing dissenting or subversive political views.
The modernist nationalist discourse utilizes a self-reflexive language, with extensive use of fragmentation, irony, and parody. However, there is still a drive to affirm certain traditions and to provide totalizing representations of national identities. Brazilian modernists activate a vast array of themes related to the discourse of origins in their nationalistic texts even in texts that are not influenced by the aesthetics of primitivism. The ways these intellectuals respond to this state of affairs are drastically different.
Their cultural projects are distinct. This atavistic attitude is related to the notion of genealo- gy, but it represents a distinct form of connection with ancestry, as it is not based on the notion of family ties or blood relations. This type of representation of time as cyclical and recurrent is reminis- cent of a mentality that was still influenced by racial theories of the late nineteenth century.
According to Dana Seitler, the notion of atavism always includes reproduction, recurrence, and inter- mission. Atavism as a cultural phenomenon has a historical speci- ficity, as it is a: identity. The numerous narratives of the colonial saga of the Bandeirantes tend to portray these settlers as brave and independent individuals. Cassiano Ricardo also wrote extensively on the Bandeirantes. Conventionally, the Bandeirantes are associated with the expe- ditions [bandeiras] that found gold and precious stones in Minas Gerais and a few other states.
But there is also a less flattering narrative that portrays them as slave- hunting men who captured native Brazilians [indians]. This kind of activity is also associated with the destruction of several Jesuit Missions in the Brazilian country- side. For a collection of essays and fragments written by many of these scholars, see Richard Morse, ed. Atavism brings the ancestral past into conjunction with the modern present, and given the post-Dar- winian moment in which the widespread deployment of the con- cept occurs, this ancestral past was always understood as part and parcel of the course of evolution Atavistic Tendencies 2.
How- ever the main focus of these three authors is on the notion of a re- gional cultural distinction and superiority. These writers do not resort to evolutionist theories in order to explain the superiority of their ancestry. However, in the historical narratives of Paulo Prado, there is hardly any dissocia- tion. Prado revives the Bandeirante myth by making claims of his- torical and scientific accuracy. I start with an analysis of the rapid social and economic transformations of the s.
With the decline of the coffee trade the aristocracy started to lose eco- nomic power and political influence. This moment of crisis of hege- mony led the aristocracy toward the movement of cultural and aes- thetic renovation proposed by the modernists. I provide a broad depiction and analysis of the various roles Prado played as an intellectual and leader of the aristocracy, as well as the diverse forms of patronage he offered for the arts and litera- ture in the s.
In spite of these conflicts the importance and centrality of Paulo Prado for the development and support of the modernist move- ment cannot be overstated. Aesthetically, the book represents the most radical innovation of that particular moment in the mod- ernist movement. Andrade incorporates the formal experiments of the avant-garde, composing a fragmented, polyphonic, and com- plex depiction of the city.
The poems articulate a plurality of posi- tions and attitudes, which are represented by the poetic voice s , or the multi-faceted subjectivity of the Harlequin. I explore the ambiguity of this poetic discourse toward urban mul- ticulturalism, especially in regard to religion, immigration, and the bourgeoisie. There are multi- ple configurations of this opposition, which is always marked by irony.
In many of these ironic remarks the immigrant component appears as the target of criticism, representing the negative, disrup- tive, illegitimate Other of modernity. From the aesthetic standpoint this collection of poems represented a radical innovation. The manifesto establishes the aesthetic and ideologi- cal platform upon which the poems of Pau-Brasil were built. The direct order of our rivers]. Pau-Brasil received mixed reactions among fellow modernists.
Some admired the technique and the themes, but criticized the as- pect of exotic nationalism. The author re- turned several times. I will comment on this nega- tive reception in chapter five. I see in Pau-Brasil a broader range of positions. I will focus on topics and themes that have rarely been considered. In the literature review I pro- vide in chapter five, I explain the debate surrounding Pau-Brasil.
I agree with some arguments but also disagree, in part, with both po- sitions. I analyze several poems in Pau-Brasil with emphasis on the liaisons and the exchange of ideas between Oswald de Andrade, Blaise Cendrars, and Paulo Prado. The Ban- deirante trope is also present in various poems. In general, the poet- ic discourse in Pau-Brasil displays a deceptively ludic character. I focus on aspects of immanence, or the allusions to certain non-visu- al ancestral, historical aspects of the poems.
My study is essentially a critique of the framework that supports the institutionalized definitions and readings of the early modernist period. It is a critique of the simplistic notions of rupture and emancipation that have framed the standard definition of Mod- 17 Prado makes reference here to the Jacobins, who formed the nationalist group during the French Revolution. It is also a critique of the time-bound conventions that structure the study of Modernism in Brazil e.
My critique of the self-aggrandizing rhetoric of the modernists, which is largely reproduced in much of the criticism and historiography, does not invalidate or discard this entire body of work. It simply evaluates some of the adverse effects that such constructions have for the study of modern Brazilian literature.
My emphasis on the aspect of self-legitimation of the critical and his- torical discourse produced by modernist intellectuals puts in evi- dence their self-interest; it calls attention to the degree of invest- ment that these intellectuals display when they assume the role of critics and arbiters of their own literary output. By the same token, my analysis of their texts is based on the recognition of the centrali- ty of their legacy: a legacy that I do not discard. On the contrary, my readings attempt to avoid commonplaces and conventions that I think have impoverished the study of the modernist legacy.
I ex- plore topics and issues that have received less attention exactly in an attempt to revitalize interest in this legacy, which is still relevant and should not be kept in a museum of national memory in ossified form. The details of this rupture or ruptures are explained only at the level of the aesthetic. However, in this kind of discourse, the aesthetic innovations attributed to Mod- ernism usually assume meanings that transcend the realm of the aesthetic.
Implied in this discourse is that such ruptures also occur at the ideological, political, ethical, and moral levels. This definition appears more explicitly in the discourse of literary historiography. Modernism is said to have ushered in a distinct language that re- flected a new intellectual attitude.
The literature that predominated at that time, especially Parnassian poetry and Art Nouveau prose, is 1 I am referring to traditional histories and a kind of aesthetic criticism that prevailed in Brazil from the s until, at least, the early s. There are excep- tions to this kind of formal criticism, but they are rare. I will explain the details of this kind of scholarship in chapter two. Their openness for the new ideas and forms of expression is said to have been expressed through the affirmation of popular culture, the use of a Brazilian language, and the desire to bring literature and art out of institutional ivory towers and into daily life.
Along these lines Modernism as a whole is defined as a watershed cultural movement that renewed or revolutionized the entire Brazilian intellectual landscape. Thus narrated, the modernist trajec- tory starts and ends in victory, with the triumph of freedom and au- thenticity for national literary and artistic expression. Some Sym- bolist poets are praised as well. I am providing a list of literary histories that I have consulted and that include similar definitions and similar timelines and ex- planations about Brazilian Modernism.
My list excludes articles and books of literary criticism that focus on specific authors. I opted in favor of works that provide broad historical views of Modernism in Brazil. The fact that this definition of Modernism is still included in textbooks for middle and high-school levels in the mids is a sign that the official view of Mod- ernism continues to be deployed in the educational system in Brazil.
Many scholars in Brazil have also pointed out the limitations of this for- malistic approach and have proposed new interpretations and ap- proaches to the study of Modernism. What I want to emphasize here is that this valorization of the notion of rupture is a problem that involves more than methodological limitations of literary criticism.
Implicit- ly or explicitly, the historiography and criticism that represented Brazilian Modernism in such terms relied on a preconceived telos of intellectual emancipation. Most of the claims ex- pressed in literary historiography had been part of the cultural agenda of early modernists. This simplified narrative structure is 6 In fact, Johnson published a series of articles in which he mentions the limi- tations of the formalistic approach to the readings of Modernism, which was pre- dominant until the s.
These are, by nature, meta-literary pieces of writing, which establish aesthetic and ideological guidelines for other artists and writers to follow. The most important manifestos appear in the mid to late s. For a transcription of all modernist manifestos, see Teles. Modernist intellectuals were well aware of the fact that, even though they shared the desire to transform the cultural landscape, there was rarely an agreement as to what path to follow. In spite of the conflicts among members of the same sub-groups, and of antag- onistic groups, such conflicts, though mentioned, do not obstruct the overarching cohesiveness of the narrative of heroic cultural lib- eration.
While Modernism as a whole tends to be idealized, individ- ual authors receive distinct treatment according to the centrality of their work in the modernist movement. This story is comprised of other stories that are organized in a sequential manner. Lyotard contends that the primary function of these metanarratives is to legitimize knowledge Conceived within institutions of higher learning, metanarratives of knowledge also fulfill the function of self-legitimation Lyotard xxiii.
This crisis of legitimacy oc- curs from within the systems that produced such metanarratives. Within institutions of higher learning, concerns with the validity of the metanarrative self-legitimizing function arise. Narratives that rely on the concept of speculation are proper to discourse of the sciences, 8 Authors whose work was considered more innovative usually received better treatment and higher placement in the volumes of literary history.
Others, whose work remained attached to old-fashioned codes, or whose political positions were too conservative, received less praise. I will return to this topic in chapter two. Within the discourse of emancipation Lyotard distin- guishes two versions of the metanarrative. The first is political and the second is philosophical In the political version of the dis- course of emancipation, Lyotard recognizes the function of legit- imizing the state. This university and its Faculdade de Filosofia [The College of Humanities] were to become models for a central- ized federal university system.
It defines Modernism as the pinnacle, the historical moment when the battle for an authentic national identity finally achieved its goals. In the most euphoric accounts of this bat- tle Modernism appears as the hero of the narrative, working toward the end-goal of emancipation of the national intelligentsia. Other accounts state that Modernism brings about a renewal of the artistic and literary languages.
In most of them it is possible to detect the identification of the historian, at some level, within this epic narra- tive. Therefore, the metanarrative of Modernism is not simply the discourse of legitimation and canonization of Modernism. This metanarrative, which is developed within state cultural institutions and institutions of higher education, performs multiple functions of legitimizing Modernism, the state cultural apparatuses, and itself. There are several components to this metanarrative.
Each of these components constitutes smaller narrative and structuring categories that are used to explain certain key moments in the de- velopment of Modernism. It is a discourse that assumed a some- what definitive form within institutions of the cultural educational apparatus of the Brazilian universities around the s. In this chapter I intend to focus on one of the most problematic components of this metanarrative, which is the expla- nation for the changes that occurred in Modernism in the passage from the s to the s.
I will then contrast that explanation with that of the studies that dealt with the relationship between intellectuals and the state during the s and 40s, which consti- tute the first manifestations of incredulity toward the metanarra- tive of Brazilian Modernism. In the final section of this chapter I will explore some of the issues that contributed to the building of the metanarrative by examining the first efforts to canonize the lit- erature of Modernism.
These first efforts do not form a cohesive body of historiography, but they suggest tem- poral demarcations, establish a list of important authors and works, and, above all, confer authority to these intellectuals to ar- bitrate the terms of their own canonization. Let me start with one of the conventional temporal demarcations that render, in aes- theticized terms, the beginning of the process that leads to this canonization.
See a transcription of the texts in Batista, Lopez, and Li- ma, Primeiro tempo modernista This negative review ended up helping histori- ans and critics build a narrative that emphasizes the shock provoked by the intro- duction of the new aesthetics in the arts. It corroborates the general argument that modernists in the beginning had to fight hard against the conservative taste and mentality of the bourgeois public. Others talk about being cursed and thrown rotten eggs. In general, there is a lot more emphasis on the shock and dismay of the audience than on the performances themselves.
These sto- ries contribute to the mystique of heroism that surrounds the early modernist mani- festations in Brazil. And we lived some eight years, until around , in the biggest intellectual orgy ever registered in the history of this country. And it is just around this date of that a calmer, more modest and quotidian, more proletarian phase, so to speak, of construction starts. This short passage contains a sketch of a historical framework that explains in broad strokes and in simple terms a very complex and long period of time for literature and the arts in Brazil.
Andrade covers eight years of the history of Modernism in one sentence. The author pro- vides a homogenized view of the s, by portraying it as a contin- uum, as a coherent whole. Thus, this passage already puts forth the notion that the s were a time of intense creativity, innovation, rebelliousness, and transgression for the modernist movement, which is also hyperbolically described as the biggest extravaganza in the history of national culture.
On the other hand, Andrade establishes a temporal mark, , as the beginning of yet another transformation in the intellectual milieu. It is also im- plied in this passage that the literature of the s not only had a connection with the earlier modernist endeavors, but it also was in a way made possible because of the experiments of the s. Andrade is probably referring to or including the group of modernists from the Northeast and the literature of the neo-real- ist novel, which he depicts as a development of the s, but also as something distinct in spirit and attitude.
This is, nonetheless, a 11 I am using the original book version of this essay that was later published as an article. It is a way to assume for his own generation part of the re- sponsibility for this development. This argument that the best writers and literary works of the s somehow derive from the early modernist movement was a construction with which the authors of the Northeast did not al- ways agree.
Vem agora o Sr. In the fragment quoted above Andrade provides no explanation for this change in attitude in the intellectual milieu in Brazil. Other authors explain this change as a maturing of the ideas, and they sometimes point out the fact that modernists did not need to be as aggressive in the s because the movement had gained supporters along the way. Contrariando o nome, sob o moderno buscou o permanente. But its influence persists. It [the movement] was assimilated because it in fact encompassed solid principles, because it constituted a to- tal revolution, not just a simple revolt, much less an academic im- position of literary precepts.
As a revolution, it acted upon the environment, modifying it; as a revolution, it overcame a destruc- tive phase, moving toward a constructive one. Contradicting its name, under the sign of the modern it searched for the perma- nent. Originating in foreign aesthetic movements, it soon be- came national; negative in its initial impetus, it soon became af- firmative; dogmatic in its inaugural formulas, it soon acquired a flexibility indispensable to action; eager for novelty in its origin, it acquainted itself with the most vivid tradition of our literary past; intellectually aristocratic at its onset, it rapidly became hu- mane; festive and somewhat humorous in its beginnings, it later gained the gravity of the creative impulses; apparently disruptive, separatist at first, it turned out to be a strong cohesive agent.
Pereira juxtaposes several antithetical adjectives in an attempt to reconcile many of the contradictions as well as the paradoxes that make it so complicated to narratize the movement in a linear, ho- mogeneous, and coherent flow of ideas and actions. The author clearly sees these opposing forces as transformative in the intellec- tual area because the trajectory generated from these conflicting elements always led Modernism in the direction of intellectual emancipation; of becoming national.
Pereira describes a mo- ment at which Modernism has achieved a new status and no longer faced significant opposition. Literatura no Brasil It had spread throughout the whole country. Such explanations, of course, can only be defended if one understands the modernist movement as a mono- lithic force with a clear and coherent cultural project.
As it is typical in all of the narratives that make up the metanar- rative of Modernism, this is an explanation that establishes a ho- mogenized meaning for a cultural phenomenon that was diverse, fragmented, and full of internal conflict. It narrates the moment in which Modernism becomes dominant and Brazilian intelligentsia is in a path for liberation. This is also a type of construction in which the political and ideological meanings of the modernist tri- umph are alluded to but not explained in explicit terms. The al- leged cultural transformation that Modernism underwent is narrat- ed, first and foremost, as a process of aesthetic gain and maturation.
Developments outside the aesthetic or outside the realm of ideas are not explained. The preceding discussion is a classic example of the immanen- tist view of Modernism.
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They elide the non- aesthetic components of the process of restructuring the political sphere i. Some of these new writers were in- fluenced by the early modernist manifestations, but many of them introduced an aesthetic sensibility and themes that were never part of the s modernist output. This characterization holds true on- ly to those who see literary movements as autonomous entities with historicities of their own. Only if one takes for granted that the au- thors who were central to Modernism in the s were the same or the newcomers were heirs of certain currents of the modernist movement in the s does this explanation satisfy.
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Fire And Ice The League Denial His Empire Volume 2. The Abbeyville Way. Confessions Of A Spanking Author. Conquering Cassia. Summer Camp. Ship Of Theseus. Mending This. Broken This. Out Of The Storm. Magnolia Grove 4 Book Series. This 5 Book Series. In Scherben German Edition. Conspiring This Book 3.
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Forever This Book 5. Forgiven This Book 4. Skipping Stones. Magnolia Grove The Complete Series. Polar Shift. The Toll The Others. The Bridal Hunt. Jingle Belled And Mistletoed Serendipitous. Serendipitous 2 Book Series. Cosmic Soul Mates 4 Book Series. Of Another Dimension. Brides Of Mordenne 2 Book Series. Just Her Luck. Collide Cosmic Soul Mates Book 4. Shades Of Werewolf. The Dragon Shifter S Twins.
Kidnapped By The Vampire Prince. Exit Unicorns. Exit Unicorns Series 4 Book Series. The Werewolf S Secret Baby. The Vampire Prince S Mate. The Billionaire Dragon S Mate. The Alpha Wolf S Baby. The Vampire Prince S Prisoner. The Ghost S Deadly Secrets. The Alpha S Baby. The Bear Detective S Mate. The Vampire Prince S Baby. Second Wind. Fated Hearts Series 7 Book Series. Road To Blissville 4 Book Series. Playboy S Challenge. Rogue S Challenge. Doorway To His Heart. Nothing To Commend Her. Highlander S Challenge. Still Waters. Letters From Home. Expedition Of Love.
Chaste Kiss. Medieval Discipline. Deathless Love. The Bossman. The Hand Of Vengeance. Owned By The Marine. Zandian Masters 9 Book Series. Bad Boy Alphas 7 Book Series. The Westerfield Trilogy 3 Book Series. Alpha Doms 3 Book Series. The Bossman 3 Book Series. His Captive Mortal. Her Hollywood Daddy. The Knight S Prisoner.
The Devil Of Whiskey Row. Safe In His Arms. Pleasing The Colonel. The Professor S Girl. Renaissance Discipline. The Naughty List. The Elusive O. Deathless Discipline. Held For Ransom. The Knight S Seduction. Promessa In Sposa Italian Edition. Grounded The Grounded Trilogy Volume 1. Wired The Grounded Trilogy Volume 3. The Grounded Trilogy 3 Book Series.
Charged The Grounded Trilogy Volume 2. The Marriage Maker 16 Book Series. The Rapture Of Canaan. Ride Dueling Devils Mc Boset. Witch For Hire. Spun Kings Of Chaos Volume 1. One Wild Ride. Cast The Cards. Proud Beaux 2 Book Series. Darcy S Big Wish. Dreaming Again Hollywood Legends Volume 4. Beautiful Skin. Georgie S Beau. Shannon Irish Sugar. Something Deeper. I Saw You Baby. Thierry S Angel. Hostile Takeover. Lessons For Solange. Wolf S Mate 5 Book Series. Masterful Husbands 4 Book Series. Victorian Melodramas 2 Book Series.
Masterful Husbands Tame Their Wives. The Adventures Of Linnett Wainwright. Christmas Wedding Serendipity Indiana Volume 3. Blemished Brides 4 Book Series. Yellowstone Romance 7 Book Series.
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Timeless Healing Timeless Hearts Book 4. Timeless Hero Timeless Hearts Book Timeless Bond Timeless Hearts Book 8. Teton Romance Trilogy 4 Book Series. Wilderness Brides 3 Book Series. Taste Of Innocence. Lost Boys Lance. Lost Boys Darien. Unconventional Husband.
Another Chance. Just Acting. Guarding His Heart. Eyes On Him. Costume Party. Try It. Dickens At Christmas Vintage Classics. Holiday Romance. Oliver Twist. The Holly Tree Classic Reprint. Our Mutual Friend Classic Reprint. Enthralled Viking Lore Book 1 Volume 1. Dark Euphoria.